In Tribute to Sister Rosa


Well-Known Member
Aug 11, 2003
Da' Gump
Scheduling Coordinator for large Health System
(1913-2005), African American civil rights activist, who is often called the Mother of the Civil Rights Movement. Her arrest for refusing to give up her seat on a bus triggered the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955 and 1956 and set in motion the test case for the desegregation of public transportation.

On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks was arrested for disregarding an order to surrender her bus seat to a white passenger. Her protest galvanized a growing movement to desegregate public transportation and marked a historic turning point in the African American battle for civil rights. Parks was much more than an accidental symbol, however. It is sometimes overlooked that at the time of her arrest, she was no ordinary bus rider; she was an experienced activist with strong beliefs. Rosa Louise McCauley was born in Tuskegee, Alabama. She was the granddaughter of former slaves and the daughter of James McCauley, a carpenter, and Leona McCauley, a rural schoolteacher.

She was raised by her mother, Leona Edward McCauley, on her grandparents' farm at Pine Level, a small community outside Montgomery. Rosa received her primary education in a segregated rural school. In 1924 she enrolled at the private Montgomery Industrial School for Girls, known as "Miss White's school" after its principal and cofounder, Alice L. White. All the students were African Americans, and all the teachers were white women from the North. "What I learned best at Miss White's school, Parks later wrote in her autobiography, Rosa Parks: My Story (1992), "was that I was a person with dignity and self-respect, and I should not set my sights lower than anybody else just because I was black."

As a teenager she attended Booker T. Washington Junior High School in Montgomery, and participated in a high school program at State Teachers College (now Alabama State University). She dropped out at the age of 16 to care for her grandmother, who died soon after, and then for her ailing mother. In December 1932 she married Raymond Parks, a 29-year-old barber. Rosa Parks received her high school diploma the following year and helped support the family by sewing and doing other jobs.

Parks' husband had long been active in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), an organization founded to improve the conditions for blacks in the United States. Parks became increasingly committed to racial justice as she and her husband joined the campaign to save the "Scottsboro boys"nine young black men who were accused of raping two white teenagers near Scottsboro, Alabama, in 1931. An all-white jury convicted the nine boys of the crime and sentenced eight of them to death, despite strong evidence of their innocence. All of the Scottsboro boys eventually gained their freedom, but the process took nearly 20 years.

In 1943 Rosa Parks became secretary of the Montgomery branch of the NAACP. That year, she made her first attempt to register to vote, although she did not succeed until her third try, in 1945. She also had her first dispute with a local bus driver when she tried to defy a rule that required blacks to board buses from the back door.

Jan 22, 2001
betwixt and between
Website Consultant
Yes ... thank you for both of them Sister Akilah ... :love:

God Bless our Ancestors!




Lyon King Admin.
Mar 21, 2001
indeed thankz for adding this of our dear and forever
remembered sista Rosa lee Parks

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