Black Muslims : Black Muslims in America 6 Centuries Before Columbus...

Omowale Jabali

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What the Muslim Attitude Towards the Bering Strait Theory Should Be
The Qur'an talks about how man was Created, Adem, Aleyhi Salaam, and then all people were wiped out except those with Nuh, Aleyhi Salaam, and then after Nuh people reappeared on earth. It doesn't say in the Qur'an that Natives in Turtle Island crossed a Bering Strait from Asia. There is mention of people living in harsh cold weather conditions in the Hadith which could easily refer to Turtle Island Natives. In the explanations of the Hadith by the scholars it says they live there and not that they are some migrants to that land.







Recently in Mexico archeologists found 40,000 year old footprints of mature people and children. They say that the oldest humans artifacts, necklace beads that they found, date back 70,000 years. They claim that first humans showed up 100,000 years ago in Africa and then 70,000 years ago underwent a mass extinction reducing them to the size of a small village of 100 to 150 or at most 200 individuals . Then they say humans grew in numbers over a period of 20,000 to 30,000 years and reappeared. According to these claims 40,000 years ago is the time when humans came into existence in numbers larger than a small village. On account of that, when people came into existence, the Natives of Turtle Island also came into existence on Turtle Island. The Bering Strait theory claims talk about Asiatic people crossing into Turtle Island from Asia some 20,000 years ago. There is no such thing in the Qur'an and Hadith but Native people did cross from Siberia into Alaska and back 20,000 years ago and this week to. They have been doing that for quite a while now. Before by boat and dog sled and these days there's Bering Air flights.
As Muslims who read the Qur'an and Hadith, we don't follow myths such as the Bering Strait theory and we believe that Natives on Turtle Island came into existence after Nuh, Aleyhi Salam, had sons and people came to be, Native folks included. Science also points to that. It talks about a mass extinction and dates Native folks on Turtle Island back to the date when humans reappear in various parts of the world simultaneously. The Bering Strait theory missed by tens of thousands of years or more. Not to say that there isn't Bering Airlines taking Natives back and forth a few times a week.

http://turtleisland.muslims.tripod.com/beringtheoryattitude.htm
 

noor100

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Aug 17, 2010
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What the Muslim Attitude Towards the Bering Strait Theory Should Be
The Qur'an talks about how man was Created, Adem, Aleyhi Salaam, and then all people were wiped out except those with Nuh, Aleyhi Salaam, and then after Nuh people reappeared on earth. It doesn't say in the Qur'an that Natives in Turtle Island crossed a Bering Strait from Asia. There is mention of people living in harsh cold weather conditions in the Hadith which could easily refer to Turtle Island Natives. In the explanations of the Hadith by the scholars it says they live there and not that they are some migrants to that land.



Recently in Mexico archeologists found 40,000 year old footprints of mature people and children. They say that the oldest humans artifacts, necklace beads that they found, date back 70,000 years. They claim that first humans showed up 100,000 years ago in Africa and then 70,000 years ago underwent a mass extinction reducing them to the size of a small village of 100 to 150 or at most 200 individuals . Then they say humans grew in numbers over a period of 20,000 to 30,000 years and reappeared. According to these claims 40,000 years ago is the time when humans came into existence in numbers larger than a small village. On account of that, when people came into existence, the Natives of Turtle Island also came into existence on Turtle Island. The Bering Strait theory claims talk about Asiatic people crossing into Turtle Island from Asia some 20,000 years ago. There is no such thing in the Qur'an and Hadith but Native people did cross from Siberia into Alaska and back 20,000 years ago and this week to. They have been doing that for quite a while now. Before by boat and dog sled and these days there's Bering Air flights.
As Muslims who read the Qur'an and Hadith, we don't follow myths such as the Bering Strait theory and we believe that Natives on Turtle Island came into existence after Nuh, Aleyhi Salam, had sons and people came to be, Native folks included. Science also points to that. It talks about a mass extinction and dates Native folks on Turtle Island back to the date when humans reappear in various parts of the world simultaneously. The Bering Strait theory missed by tens of thousands of years or more. Not to say that there isn't Bering Airlines taking Natives back and forth a few times a week.

http://turtleisland.muslims.tripod.com/beringtheoryattitude.htm
This is very interesting.It reminds me of what a Native American told me about...from their oral tradition,and that is they[his tribe]] have always been here[North America],they did not come over on the Bering Strait like some of these white historians have been saying.
 

noor100

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Aug 17, 2010
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Muslims in American History: A Forgotten Legacy

By: Dr. Jerald F. Dirks
Reviewed by: Shad Imam
376 pages
“In Fourteen Hundred and Ninety-Two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue…”
…and conventional wisdom, as taught to us in our childhoods, tells us that America was
discovered with his expedition.
For most of the twentieth century, this “conventional wisdom” went unchallenged. But in his years of research, Dr. Jerald Dirks – a former Harvard Divinity School Minister turned Muslim Comparative Religion scholar – began to see the “Age of Exploration” in a new light. His research and the analysis he brings forth in Muslims in American History: A Forgotten Legacy, goes into some of the historical evidence that contemporary researchers have discovered with regards to the sizable Muslim contributions to the New World, prior to Columbus’s voyage across the Atlantic. His book is nicely written (read: easy to read) and highly annotated by the research that others of have contributed into this field of study, including a plethora of references to Dr. Abdullah Hakim Quick’s book, Deeper Roots: Muslims in the Americas and the Caribbean from before Columbus to the Present. Dirks, himself a meticulous master of research methodology, confronts the prevalent myth that Islam in America is a relatively recent phenomenon. “In reality,” he asserts, “there is a centuries-long history of the Muslim presence in America.”
The book is divided into logical sections that delineate an ongoing Muslim presence in America since about the mid-12th century and before. His chapters include sections on “The Pre-Columbian Era” which touches on various groups of Muslims in America prior to Columbus. This section is deeply insightful and quite thorough, with stories of Muslims from Andalusia, the Ottoman Empire and Muslim Africa.
 

noor100

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Aug 17, 2010
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Africans here before Columbus-lecture

By:Barbara E.
Date: 5/18/2003, 10:58 am

LECTURE PRESENTED AT
WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY
February 6, 2003
The History of Islam in the New World Before Columbus
Introduction
I will attempt to present information to you that is not only academic but
backed up with clear evidence of the presence of Muslims in the Americas at
large. It is possible that many of you may not even have heard of this
information. My talk today will also deal with a topic that academic world
has not given it its due attention unfortunately due to what I term
"intellectual and academic prejudice" and therefore denying certain people
their rightful place in history.
I am certainly not the first person to suggest that there were Muslims in
America before Columbus and more specifically African Muslims in America.
Nor were van Sertima or Barry Fell and others the first ones.
In fact when one looks at probably some the earliest documented suggestions,
it is clear from European perspective that Columbus, himself, was the first
person to suggest it. He says in his Journal of the Second Voyage, and this
is quoted in many places, not just in his journal, that when he was in
Haiti, which was then called Espanola, the native Americans came to him and
told him that Black-skinned people had come from the south and southeast in
boats, trading in gold-tipped metal spears. And that "Columbus wanted to
find out what the Indians of Espanola told him, that there had come from the
south and southeast, Negro people who brought those spear points made of a
metal which they call "guanin". So he sent sent samples to the king and
queen for assay and which were found to have 32 parts - 18 of gold, 6 of
silver, and 8 of copper.
The results then were astonishing and the ratio or proportion of gold,
silver and copper alloys were found to be identical (and the key word here
is "identical") with spears then being forged in African Guinea.
A further examination of the literature shows clearly that there are at
least a dozen European explorers of the Columbus contact period who, within
the first 50 years or so of the European encounter, saw black Africans among
the Native Americans.
For example Fredinand Columbus, one of the sons of Columbus, reported in a
book on the life of Columbus, that his father told him that he had seen
Blacks north of the present day Honduras. So these together with many other
compelling and convincing pieces of evidence clearly show that Africans were
in the Americas well before Columbus got here.
The question arises: How could Africans cross the Atlantic? And what was
the religious orientation of these Africans?
These are really major questions. To study this questions further - one had
to bring the evidence that points out to the fact that Africans had the
maritime know how and other forms of oceanographic and geographical
evidence. Therefore such a voyage is possible once we appreciate that early
Africans had navigational tools and resources to undertake exploration.
Therefore one has to look at other indicators of what is going on by looking
at linguistics, botany, oceanographic data, art, handcraft, demographics,
etc.
This sense of nostalgia of "let us make everything African" in my opinion
belittles such important subjects as this one and it ends up becoming
polemicized. Instead one needs to recognize that this subject needs to be
put on a respectable basis so that experts in various fields can study it.
The evidence does exist in various fields, and once clear, then the record
needs to be set straight and information at classroom level and schools
alike needs to be corrected so that credit is given to those that it is due.
Islam spread to Africa:
The Prophet of Islam (SAW) in his last sermon charged the Swahaba take this
message to the rest of humanity. The Swahaba (RAA) understood that call and
they left the Hijaz area, left the Arabian Peninsula and spread out in
different directions. The majority of them died outside of the Hijaz area.
So Islam within 100 years spread quickly to Africa, Asia and Europe. It is
recorded that Uqba (RAA), rode across North Africa in the spreading and
defense of Islam and until he came to the Atlantic (looking at the Americas)
and he said "If I knew that there are lands across you - I would spread the
word of Allah - I would spread the message of Islam in that direction"
So the religion revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) between 609 - 632
C.E. had been introduced to North Africa as early as 660 and by the eight
century - it was introduced through contacts with merchants from the North.
African them selves considered Islam as an African religion due to its
permissibility of circumcision, proper slaughtering of animals, communal
prayers, polygamy, etc..
One invaluable innovation that these Muslims brought which would later be
important in exploratory voyages of African Muslims, was literacy. The
striving for literacy in Wes Africa was very strong that by the end of the
15 century - Kano, Nogeria had 3000 teachers, and 100 years later - the West
African town of Timbuktu in Mali had 150 schools. African Guinea (Futa
Jallon) is mentioned by French historians as having schools and children
able to read and write Arabic.
And generally, the lingua franca of the Muslim world was Arabic and so the
West African Muslim world had direct economic, religious, cultural, and
intellectual ties to the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Middle East and was
evolving to what would be called today as the global market of ideas,
technology, and goods. Diplomatic relations were established. Students
were sent to Egypt and other places to learn and West African rulers around
the early 1200's built a school in Cairo for his subject who was studying
there.
They also traveled through North Africa freely to go and perform the
pilgrimage and Mansa Musa of Mali who while on a pilgrimage to Makkah in
1324 spent so much Gold that he single handedly drove the gold market down.
He in fact established endowments and positions that were filled by
intellectuals by architects, lawyers, and teachers from as far as Muslim
Spain. So we know African Muslims through the greater network of the
Muslim Empire had access to centers of learning and growth and spoke Arabic
- the lingua franca of Islam.
Let me also mention that the mathematical advances ongoing in the Muslim
world during the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries by people like Alkhawrizmi, the
Al-Zarqali, known in the West as Arzachel, who was an astronomer per
excellence and who invented a flat astrolabe which is known as Safihah. This
is then is the stage that would fuel further learning and sharing of
information throughout the Muslim world.
Islam spreads to Spain
At about 711 C.E. - Muslims entered the Iberian peninsula and entered into
modern Portugal and Spain. Evidence - is the name Portugal and Gibraltar.
Tariq landed on a Jabbal - "Jabbal Tariq" - that is known to us as
Gibraltar. Muslim Spain had a civilization unparalleled in Europe.
African Muslims journey to America
One of the places that Muslim went into was the Pacific and contrary to a
little bit of knowledge that we know about Muslim our own presence in this
part of the world..yet Muslims went into the Pacific Ocean during the
Ummayad period.
Just within 100 yrs after the death of the prophet (SAW) - they went into a
set of region and they found a set of Islands and it was windy area and so
they called them "Juzuu-el-hawa" - Hawa - air wind and so Juzu-l-hawa
becomes Hawai. They traveled to parts of the world that you may not be aware
of and one could ask how could a man coming from the Arabs who at that time
treasured their language but did not treasure technology - how could they
have done this? But we recognize that the dark ages of Europe when the
lights of civilization went off after the fall of the Roman Empire - this
was the Golden age of Islam and Muslims between the 8th - 14th century.
It is during this Golden age of Islam that Muslims excelled in all the
discipline and became master seamen, astronomers, navigators, geographers,
historians, scientists, physicians, chemists, etc. In almost every
discipline - we found that the Muslims were the ones who laid the foundation
for this civilization.
Knowledge of Maps and Astronomy:
Africans unlike commonly thought were smart and intelligent people. During
the great age of exploration - navigators were severely handicapped because
they had no instrument by which they could find longitude at sea. The
chronometer was not developed until 250 years later. Latitude could be
determined by astronomical observations, but without proper training and
equipment, many errors were made. It is these astronomical knowledge that
Muslims were generally masters of and one, which was shared freely within
the Muslim world and cultures including African Muslim Cultures such that
mistakes in navigation and oceanography were minimal
The author of the map, Piri Muhyid Din Re' wrote a handbook on navigation in
the Aegean and the Mediterranean Seas, which was known as Pir Re' is
Bahriye.
The Hadji Ahmed world map of 1559 was amazingly accurate and the Americas
(North and South) are presented surprisingly in a very modern look and were
drawn on a highly sophisticated spherical projection.
Hadji Ahmed and Piri Re'I were both Muslim Turks and the Moors and other
Muslims of Andalusia played a major role in the preservation of ancient
maps. It was the writing of the 12th century Muslim Scholar Al-Idrisi that
provided Europeans of their first glimpses of what Muslim travelers knew.
Language:
Al-Sharif al Idrisi (1097-1155) the famous Muslim (Arab) geographer
reported in his extensive work The Geography of Al Idrisis in the 12th
century, on the journey of a group of North African seamen who reached the
Americas. Al Idrisis tells that a group of seafarers sailed into the sea
of Darkness and Fog (the Atlantic Ocean) from Lisbon in order to discover
what was in it and to what extent were its limits. They were a party of
eight and they finally reached an island that had people and cultivation but
they were captured a translator came speaking the Arabic language! He
translated for the King and asked them about their mission. They were told
that their lands was a journey of two months.
This astonishing historical report not only clearly describes contact
between Muslim seamen and the indigenous people of the Caribbean islands but
it confirms the fact that the contact between the two worlds had been so
involved that the native people could speak Arabic!
And so Ancient America was not isolated from the old world, as many
historians would have us believe. Knowledge, agricultural products,
livestock and other commercial items were exchanged between the two worlds,
and Muslims were probably one of the most important contact people before
Columbus' voyage.
Evidence leading to the presence of Muslims in the ancient Americas comes
from a number of sculptures, oral traditions, eyewitness reports, artifacts,
and inscriptions. In Meso-American art we see Africans and Semites in
positions of power and prestige, especially in trading communities of
Mexico.
We see reports about certain economic icons and realities and a report in
Before Columbus by Cyrus Gordon describes coins found in the southern
Caribbean region of African origin dating back to around the 700 to 800's.
It is also reported that a Moorish ship, perhaps from North Africa and
possibly Spain seems to have crossed the Atlantic around 800 AD.
These coins are solid confirmation of the historical reports recorded by
Muslim historians and geographers concerning the journeys of Muslim
adventures and navigators across the Atlantic Ocean. In Muruj adhDhabab Al
Mas'udi the famous geographer in the year 956 CE wrote about a young man of
Cordoba named Khashkhash ibn saeed ibn Aswad who crossed the Atlantic Ocean
and returned in the year 889 CE
Despite the numerous voyages undertaken by the Muslims of Spain and North
Africa, their contact remained limited and fairly secretive.
In my opinion and that of Dr. Quick is that the most significant wave of
Muslim explorers and traders came from the West African Islamic Empire of
Mali. When Mansa Musa, the world renowned ruler of Mali, was enroot to
Makkah during his famous pilgrimage in 1324, he informed the scholars of
Cairo that his predecessor had undertaken two expeditions into the Atlantic
Ocean in order to discover its limits. Al 'Umari in his Masalik al Absar fi
Mamalik al Amsar reported from his informant the following:
"I asked the Sultan Musa, says Ibn Amir Hajib, how it was that
power came into his hands. 'We are', he told me, 'from a house
that transmits power by heritage. The ruler who preceded me
would not believe that it was impossible to discover the limits of the
neighboring sea. He wanted to find out and persisted in his plan. He
had two hundred ships equipped and filled them with men, and
others in the same number filled with gold, water and supplies in
sufficient quantity to last for years. He told those who commanded
them. 'Return only when you have reached the extremity of the
ocean, or when you have exhausted your food and water.' They
went away; their absence was long, before any of them returned.
Finally a sole ship reappeared. We asked the captain about their
adventures.' 'Prince', he replied, 'we sailed far a long time, up to
the moment when we encountered in mid-ocean something like a river with a
violent current. My ship was last. The other sailed on, and
gradually as each one entered this place, they disappeared and did
not come back. We did not know what had happened to them. As
for me, I returned to where I was and did not enter the current.'
"But the emperor did not want to believe him. He equipped two
thousand vessels, a thousand for himself and the men who
accompanied him and a thousand for water and supplies. He
conferred power on me and left with his companions on the ocean.
This was the last time that I saw him and the others, and I remained
Absolute master of the empire."
This report reveals that the Mandika monarch made great preparation for the
journey and had confidence in its success. His captain, who reported the
violent river in mid-ocean, must have encountered a mid-ocean current. This
current was either the North Equatorial or the Antilles current, either of
whose distances from the West African coast at the latitude would place the
fleet at the doorstep of the Americas.
Then came the argument by many scholars who have tried to prove the
impossibility of African people crossing the Atlantic Ocean successfully
before Columbus.
Two voyages across the Atlantic by Thor Heyerdahl in papyrus vessels,
inscriptions found in Brazil, Peru and the United States, proven linguistic
transfer into the native Amerindian languages, and numerous cultural
evidences of Mandinka presence have established the contrary. Thor
Heyerdahl in the 60s took a boat and went across by himself in a boat made
of papyrus and he showed that you can get across the Atlantic with a Boat
made of indigenous African Material and you don't have to be on the Nina,
Pinto and Santa Maria of Christopher Columbus.
The Mandinka made contact with the closest land mass to the West African
coast, Brazil using water currents that exist between West Africa and the
Coast of Brazil. They appear to have used it as a base for exploration of
the Americas and traveled along rivers in the dense jungles of South America
and overland till they reached North America. The following is part of a
study done by Clyde Ahmad Winters on "the influence of the Mande languages
on America".
Many of the Mandinka (or Manding) cities of stone and mortar have been
reclaimed by the jungle but a large number of these cities were seen by the
early Spanish explorers and banderiristas (land pirates).
It also seems that Manding explores under the Mansa's instructions explored
many parts of North America. This is evident from the appearance of mounds
throughout the United States, especially in the vicinity of the Mississippi
river, which they used for exploring America.
In Arizona, they left inscriptions, which show that the Manding explorers
also brought a number of elephants of America with them. Writings and
pictographs found in a cave at Four Corners, Arizona discuss the
characteristics of the desert. Inscriptions reading:
[The desert is hot. Birds are numerous white.(ka).and called go].
[The elephants are sick and angry. At present sick elephants are
considerable].
Some of the Muslim Africans of Honduras called themselves "Almamys" prior to
the coming of the Spaniards. In the Mandinka language 'Almamy' was used
for Al Imamu - prayer leader or chieftain.
Another part of the pre-Colombian African hereditary legacy is what was left
with the Carib people from whose name we derive the word 'Caribbean'. One
of their scholars wrote in The Daily Clarion of Belize on November 5, 1946,
"When Christopher Columbus discovered the west Indies about the year 1493,
he found there a race of white peiole (i.e. half breeds) with wooly hair
whom he called Caribs. They were seafaring hunters and tillers of the soil,
peaceful and united. They hated aggression. Their religion was
Mohammedanism and their language presumably Arabic."
These people were thought to be the descendents pf the early Mandinka
Muslims who came across from Africa - they call themselves "Garifuna people"
Many of these people are Muslims.
The Black Caribs, also had a number of clearly Islamic practices like the
complete prohibition of the eating of the flesh of swine.
Islamic words having a West-African, Mandinka root have been found in native
languages not only in the Caribbean region but also in North America.
The renowned American historian and linguist, Leo Weiner of Harvard
University in 1920 wrote a controversial but well documented work entitled
"Africa and the Discovery of America". He proved in it that Columbus was
well aware of the Mandinka presence and that the West African Muslims had
not only spread throughout the Caribbean, Central and South America, but
they reached Canada and were trading and intermarrying with the Iroquosis
and Algonquin Indian nations!
Not only was the knowledge of the presence of Muslims in the Americas known
by early Spanish and Portuguese explorers, but Muslim geographical and
navigational information actually was the foundation of the European
expansion. Vasco de Gama is reported to have consulted with Ahmad ibn Majid
on the West coast of Africa. Ibn Majid is regarded as the author of a
handbook on navigation on the Indian Ocean, the Red sea, the Persian Gulf,
the Sea of Southern China and the waters around the West Indies.
Barry Fell in his Book "Saga America" explains that they found the writings
of many different people in America in pictographs, in caves, on rocks in
different parts of America a type of scribbling which they thought was the
scribbling of a native people. But Barry Fell and his team came to find out
that it was a combination of an ancient Libyan script and Kufik Arabic.
He took this proof to Benghazi and Tripoli Libya and he brought Scholars,
UNESCO, Arabic language scholars to investigate the information and
astonishing truth of Islamic presence in the South West, in California came
to light.
They found an engraving in Nevada in a huge Bed rock saying They found
another writing saying "Muhammad nabiullah".
"Ismu Allah" - the name of Allah.
They found 7th century Kufik writing on the border of Nevada and California
saying "Shaytan is the fount of lies" They found another writing saying
"Muhammad nabiullah".
They found these writings all over the SW and they realized that the Native
people especially Rock dwelling people who made their structure and
dwellings and homes into the sides of mountains - that the configuration of
their houses was the same as the houses of the Bedus living in Southern
Algeria and Libya and Morocco.
They found designs of the clothing and tattoos on the faces - a number of
cultural realities and icons were the same as Muslims leaving in North
Africa.
And they found a map an 8th century map and that is where they found
Juzul-el-Hawa and the map showed the Hudson bay and it showed Panama and it
clearly showed that Muslims in general and African Muslims in particular
came and were mapping the US, Mexico down into Central America.
Muslims from Spain come to America
During the Spanish inquisition over 500,000 Muslims and Jews were either
killed or had to flee going back to the lands of Islam. Other people who
could not take the torture hid their identity and the Jews were called
Morenos and Muslims were called Morescos - and it is these people who then
comprised of the labor force that came with the Spanish and Portuguese.
They came into this part of the world in large numbers - unfortunately the
history books don't tell us about the presence of these Muslims and you
think that Muslims just came recently in the last 40 - 60 years.
In 1527 once again working for the Spanish Asen Mori - a Moroccan Barber was
a great explorer and it is reported that a group was sent out from Florida
of 300 Spaniards which included this African Muslim and they went from
Florida to the West Coast and back to Texas. Only 3 people along with Asen
Mori survived - the rest were killed by the natives and it is reported that
he was the first person to enter into the Pueblo Indian villages. He is the
one that lead the Conquistadors into the SW to help them understand what
actually existed in the SW.
Conquistadors were here before the British and they established St Elena in
South Carolina in 1566 and it was overrun by the British and the records are
now showing that there were hundreds of these Muslim Moroscos who were
living in St Elena and instead of submitting to the British - they went into
the interior and they mixed with the Native people all in the Carolina area
and they settled into the interior.
In South America - in 1586 - the English pirate - Sir Frances Drake
commanded 30 English ships and they made a daring raid on Brazil and they
liberated 400 Portuguese and Spanish prisoners. Among them - it was reported
that 300 or more were Muslims - Moriscos. Frances Drake finally came to
America and over 200 of these Moriscos were left on the shore and these
people went up into the Mountains and they met the other ones - Moriscos who
were now called Mullengeons.
And they settled and intermingled with the Natives living in Carolinas and
living in Georgia and they would call themselves Portuguese which then
evolved to Gicchi. A lot of the African American Families tended to have a
Gicchi related to them. And these people were known in America and
certainly the SW. But were did they come from?
Medical Evidence:
A startling research just done in the last few years by Brent Kennedy who
was one of these Mullengons. He found that they had a disease called
Sarcodiasis and genetically it was linked to the people of the North West
Africa and Mediterranean and he was funded in a grant - so he also found
that in the middle 1600 that they were people living among the powhatans and
related tribes of Eastern Virginia and the Carolinas who were dark skin like
Indians but they were called Portuguese
The early 17th century Powhatan Indian description of haven is nearly word
for word like the description found in the Quran
Right here in our state - in 1784, Tennessee governor John Seevier records
an encounter with people in the Western North Carolina with Dark reddish
brown complexion and he said that they were supposed to be of Moorish
decent.
In Eastern Tennessee in the late 1700, Jonathan Swits an English men married
a Mullungeon women and utilized them in his mining operations and these dark
skin individuals were known as Mecca Indians and they described them as
being god with Silver crafts and this really comes out of Muslim Spain and
Muslims were very good in that. He continues to say that they use to fall
down in prayer on the ground a number of times during the day facing East.
Turn then thy face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque; wherever ye
are turn your faces in that direction
These early Muslims long before Columbus went up the Mississippi and they
made contact with the native people that they came in contact with -
Algonquian, Iroquois and Cherokee nation and they mixed with the native
inhabitants of this part of the world.
About 6 years ago - a man whose name is Mahir Abdal-Razzaaq El - he is a
Cherokee Blackfoot American Indian and a Muslim sent an article to the
Muslim publication "The Message" and in it he writes:
"...there other Muslims in our group. For the most part, not many people
are aware of the Native American contact with Islam that began over one
thousand years ago by some of the early Muslim travelers who visited us.
Some of these Muslim travelers ended up living among our people.
For most Muslims and non-Muslims of today, this type of information is
unknown and has never been mentioned in any of the history books".
Mahir Abdal-Razzaq told us of the many documents, treaties, legislation and
resolutions that were passed between 1600s and 1800s that show that Muslims
were in fact here and were very active in the communities in which they
lived. Treaties such as Peace and Friendship that was signed on the Delaware
River in the year 1787 bear the signatures of Abdel-Khak and Muhammad Ibn
Abdullah.
All of the documents are presently in the National Archives as well as the
Library of Congress. If you have access to records in the state of South
Carolina, read the Moors Sundry Act of 1790. Almost all of the tribes
vocabulary include the word "Allah".
Even the dress of these people - If you were to look at any of the old books
on Cherokee clothing up until the time of 1832, you will see the men wearing
turbans and the women wearing long head coverings. The last Cherokee chief
who had a Muslim name was Ramadhan Ibn Wati of the Cherokees in 1866.
Even names of cities that are Cherokee names have an Islamic understanding
to them - e.g. Tallahassee - - It means that "He Allah will deliver you
sometime in the future".
So the journeys of Muslims continued but because they were not able to
establish themselves and because they were not able to keep the link with
the rest of the Muslim world - the link with the knowledge - making Islam
relevant to the world that they live in. They lost their identity. Then
the conquest of the Spanish Conquistadors who came in and destroyed all form
of culture that they found - because of this we have no trace of them except
of these few writings of the scholars that now is emerging from different
parts of America.
Botanical Evidence:
The botanist have provided further corroborative evidence. The Portuguese
were in West Africa, since about 1450, in fact before. The Portuguese found
cotton growing plentifully in west Africa and they took this cotton and
planted it into the cape Verde islands in 1462. Thirty years before
Columbus. They assumed it to be indigenously African. When it was studied
in the twentieth centry, they found it was not African, yet it was
transplanted to Africa and was growing pentifully there before Columbus.
Not only that. We've also found zea mays ! Professor M.D.W. Jefferys of
Witwaterstrand University, a brilliant South African linguist, showed how
American maize had traveled African continent and he traced it down
meticulously through linguistic footprints.
And the Russians picked it up as it moved from Africa into Asia. Botanist
Kuleshov and Vavilov identified it. They showed that American zea mays had
entered Asia before the time of the Columbus voyages.
On the Third voyage also, when Columbus' ships landed on the northeastern
cost of South America, his crewmen describe a certain dress of the identical
material and design as the almayzar which the Portuguese found Africans
wearing in Guinea. In South America the European visitors found plants
brought in through earlier contacts. Take the banana! The banana is not
African. It is an Asian cultigen. However, we do not find the banana on
the Pacific coast, the "Asiatic side" of south America. It is found in east
Peru and along the Amazon-the "Atlantic" side.
The Arabs introduced the Asian banana in their trade with Africa since the
twelfth century. They took it out of Asia and introduced it to Africa.
All the African, as well as the Arab-African, words for the banana run
through the South American languages in recognizable form.
And so all these pieces of evidence including genealogical studies that are
now coming out more and more where the geneologists are now saying that
anybody coming from the Eastern part of the US whether White, black, Gicchi,
mixed, etc that if your last name is Adam, Atkins, Bell, Bennet, Bary,
Bowling, Chavez, Coleman, Collins, Gibson, Gowens, Hull, Lopez, More,
Mullins, Nash, Robinson, Sexton, and Williams - any one of those names then
more than likely - you were Mullengeon which means that originally of
Morescos decent and therefore Moorish and Muslim in origin.
But these early Muslims and especially African Muslim went into rough times
and persecution and identity crises arouse and as generations went by -
these people gave themselves new identities .
Slave Trade and arrival of Islam:
Sylviane Diouf in his book tells us that the Salve trade brought African
Muslims in the thousands into North America. When the first Africans were
shipped to the New world, beginning in 1501, Islam was already well
established in West Africa
Scattered across every region of the Americas, the Muslims entered a hostile
world - a world that enslaved free Muslim men and women; a white Christian
world determined to wipe out any trace of paganism or "Muhammadinism" in the
newly arrived Africans.
It was essential that the new land become Christian as quickly as possible,
because evangelization was a large part of the justification for the
enslavement of the Africans. Also the fight against the possible spread of
Islam had been an intense preoccupation in the Spanish colonies since the
beginning of the 16th century.
All the conditions were therefore present for a rapid disappearance of Islam
in America. Some of these Muslims did survive the onslaught of Christian
persecution.
"Given the fact that many people perceive Islam to be a relatively new
entity in America, it is very important to let people know that the history
extends across 7 centuries. It's exciting knowledge and very revolutionary.
So many Muslims have paved the way for this America we know. It is our
obligation to make people aware that Muslims helped to build this country
and therefore are a part of the mosaic of this country.
Africa and the Discovery of America - By Leo Weiner
African Presence in Early America - By Ian Van Sertima
Saga America - By Barry Fell
Servants of Allah - By Sylvianne Diouf

http://www.afrigeneas.com/forumearchive/index.cgi/md/read/id/2024/sbj/africans-here-before-columbus-lecture/
 

noor100

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Aug 17, 2010
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Africa's 'greatest explorer'



Abubakari gave up his kingdom to pursue knowledge

By Joan Baxter in Mali
An African emperor who ruled Mali in the 14th century discovered America nearly 200 years before Christopher Columbus, according to a book to be launched this month.
Abubakari II ruled what was arguably the richest and largest empire on earth - covering nearly all of West Africa.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1068950.stm



Our aim is to bring out hidden parts of history


Khadidjah Dire

According to a Malian scholar, Gaoussou Diawara in his book, 'The Saga of Abubakari II...he left with 2000 boats', the emperor gave up all power and gold to pursue knowledge and discovery.
Abubakari's ambition was to explore whether the Atlantic Ocean - like the great River Niger that swept through Mali - had another 'bank'.
In 1311, he handed the throne over to his brother, Kankou Moussa, and set off on an expedition into the unknown.
His predecessor and uncle, Soundjata Keita, had already founded the Mali empire and conquered a good stretch of the Sahara Desert and the great forests along the West African coast.
Gold fields
The book also focuses on a research project being carried out in Mali tracing Abubakari's journeys.
"We are not saying that Abubakari II was the first ever to cross the ocean," says Tiemoko Konate, who heads the project
"There is evidence that the Vikings were in America long before him, as well as the Chinese," he said.



Most Griots are beginning to divulge Abubakari's secrets

The researchers claim that Abubakari's fleet of pirogues, loaded with men and women, livestock, food and drinking water, departed from what is the coast of present-day Gambia.
They are gathering evidence that in 1312 Abubakari II landed on the coast of Brazil in the place known today as Recife.
"Its other name is Purnanbuco, which we believe is an aberration of the Mande name for the rich gold fields that accounted for much of the wealth of the Mali Empire, Boure Bambouk."
Another researcher, Khadidjah Djire says they have found written accounts of Abubakari's expedition in Egypt, in a book written by Al Omari in the 14th century.
"Our aim is to bring out hidden parts of history", she says.
Black traders
Mr Konate says they are also examining reports by Columbus, himself, who said he found black traders already present in the Americas.
They also cite chemical analyses of the gold tips that Columbus found on spears in the Americas, which show that the gold probably came from West Africa.



Mali was a gold kingdom, but most families live in poverty

But the scholars say the best sources of information on Abubakari II are Griots - the original historians in Africa.
Mr Diawara says the paradox of Abubakari II, is that the Griots themselves imposed a seal of silence on the story.
"The Griots found his abdication a shameful act, not worthy of praise," Mr Diawara said.
"For that reason they have refused to sing praise or talk of this great African man."
Mr Diawara says the Griots in West Africa such as Sadio Diabate, are slowly starting to divulge the secrets on Abubakari II.
'Hard-nosed historians'
But the research team says an even bigger challenge is to convince hard-nosed historians elsewhere that oral history can be just as accurate as written records.
Mr Diawara believes Abubakari's saga has an important moral lesson for leaders of small nation states in West Africa, which were once part of the vast Mande-speaking empire.
"Look at what's going on in all the remnants of that empire, in Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea.
"Politicians are bathing their countries in blood, setting them on fire just so that they can cling to power," says Mr Diawara.
"They should take an example from Abubakari II. He was a far more powerful man than any of them. And he was willing to give it all up in the name of science and discovery."
"That should be a lesson for everyone in Africa today," concludes Mr Diawara.
 

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